Fahd bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, (16 March 1921 – 1 August 2005) was the King of Saudi Arabia from 1982 to 2005.
Early life and education
Fahd bin Abdulaziz was born in Riyadh in 1921. He is the eighth son of Ibn Saud. His mother was Hassa Al Sudairi and he was the eldest member of the Sudairi Seven.Fahd's education took place at the Princes' School in Riyadh, a school established by Ibn Saud specifically for the education of members of the House of Saud. He received education for four years as a result of his mother's urging. While at the Princes' School, Fahd studied under tutors including Sheikh Abdul-Ghani Khayat. Then he went on to receive education at the Religious Knowledge Institute in Mecca.
Early political positions
Prince Fahd was made a member of the royal advisory board at his mother's urging. In 1945, Prince Fahd traveled on his first state visit to San Francisco for the signing of the UN charter. On this trip he served under his brother, Prince Faisal, who was at the time Saudi Arabia's foreign minister. In 1953, Fahd led his first official state visit, attending the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II on behalf of the House of Saud. On 24 December 1953, Prince Fahd was appointed education minister, being the first person holding this post in the country.Prince Fahd led the Saudi delegation to the League of Arab States in 1959, signifying his increasing prominence in the House of Saud—and that he was being groomed for a more significant role. In 1962, Fahd was given the important post of interior minister. As interior minister he headed the Saudi delegation at a meeting of Arab Head of States in Egypt in 1965. He was named second deputy prime minister in 1967, which was created for the first time by King Faisal.
After the death of King Faisal in 1975, Fahd was named first deputy prime minister and concurrently crown prince in 1975. Although Prince Fahd had two elder brothers, Prince Nasser and Prince Saad, who had prior claims to the throne, but both were considered unsuitable candidates. By contrast, Prince Fahd had served as minister of education from 1954 to 1960 and minister of interior from 1962 to 1975.
Appointment of Prince Fahd as both crown prince and first deputy prime minister made him a much more powerful figure in contrast to the status of King Khaled when he had been crown prince during King Faisal's reign.
When King Khalid died on 13 June 1982, Fahd succeeded to the throne. He was the fifth king of Saudi Arabia. However, the most active period of his life was not his reign, but when he was Crown Prince. He adopted the title "Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques" in 1986, replacing "His Majesty", to signify an Islamic rather than secular authority.