Medina is a city in the Hejaz, and the capital of the Al Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia. The city contains al-Masjid an-Nabawi ("the Prophet's Mosque"), which is the burial place of the Islamic prophet Muhammad (PBUH), and is the second-holiest city in Islam after Mecca. Medina was Prophet Muhammad's (PBUH) destination after his Hijrah from Mecca, and became the capital of a rapidly increasing Muslim Empire, first under Muhammad's leadership, and then under the first three Rashidun caliphs Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman. It served as the power base of Islam in its first century where the early Muslim community developed. Medina is home to the three oldest mosques, namely the Quba Mosque, al-Masjid an-Nabawi, and Masjid al-Qiblatayn ("the mosque of the two qiblas").
As of 2006, the city of Medina has a population of about 1.3 million. In addition to its Arab inhabitants, during the pre-Islamic era Yathrib was inhabited by Jewish refugees. Later the city's name was changed to al-Madīnatu n-Nabī (المدينة النبي "city of the prophet") or al-Madīnatu 'l-Munawwarah (المدينة المنورة "the enlightened city" or "the radiant city"). Medina is celebrated for containing al-Masjid an-Nabawi and also as the city which gave refuge to him and his followers, and so ranks as the second holiest city of Islam, after Mecca. Muhammad (PBUH) was buried in Medina, under the Green Dome, as were the first two Rashidun caliphs, Abu Bakr R and Umar R, who were buried next to him in what used to be the prophet house.
Today, Medina ("Madinah" officially in Saudi documents), in addition to being the second most important Islamic pilgrimage destination after Mecca, is an important regional capital of the western Saudi Arabian province of Al Madinah. In addition to the sacred core of the old city, which is off limits to non-Muslims, Medina is a modern, multi-ethnic city inhabited by Saudi Arabs and an increasing number of Muslim and non-Muslim expatriate workers: other Arab nationalities (Egyptians, Jordanians, Lebanese, etc.), South Asians (Bangladeshis, Indians, Pakistanis, etc.), and Filipinos.